The spitz type dogs have evolved on the arctic regions of the world, that is on the present-day Scandinavian countries, Russia, Alaska and Canada. The dogs living on these regions are of the same basic type, although a little different in size and construction depending on the use of the dog.
Originally these dogs were bred for three different purposes: hunting, herding and sledding. The dogs used for herding were the smallest. Dogs used for hunting were of different sizes, depending on the type of the game they hunted and the dogs used for pulling sleds were bigger.
The Northern spitzdogs are physically extremely well adapted to the northern circumstances and severe climate. The coat is double, undercoat is soft, dense and water resistant. The outer coat is longer and stiffer. During the winter the underparts of the paws and between toes there grows thick hair, forming somewhat like " a slipper", which prevents from frost-bites and also from the wearing effect of ice and snow. The Nordic spitzdogs have a natural conformation which is not over exaggerated and a flexible, endurable gait. The head is wedge like, ears erect and at the most medium sized in proportion to the head, because bigger ears are vulnerable to frost-bites and cause unnecessary loss of body temperature. The tail is usually long and well furred. When the dog curls up like a ball, he tucks his legs under his body, hides his muzzle in the soft hairs of the tail to keep warmth. During the summer season the Northern spiztdog breeds blow their old wintercoat often very quickly, sometimes within a week or two to a shorter and less dense summercoat. The summer coat is often also a little darker than the wintercoat. During the last century many of these basic spitzdog types have been registered as distinct breeds.